Dedham's system of government is representative town meeting, in which citizens elect representatives to propose and consider new municipal bylaws and regulations.
- Town Meeting: 270 Dedham residents are tasked each spring and fall with representing the townspeople and acting as a lawmaking body. Members are elected by the voting precinct they reside in.
- Town Moderator: Help to guide Town Meeting, keep the process orderly, and appoints members to certain boards and committees.
- Bylaw Review Committee: Reviews amendments that are to be considered by Town Meeting and makes recommendations on them.